In conclusion, our findings support the use of an LCD with 20 E% from carbohydrates as an alternative to a traditional low-fat diet, if the aim primarily is to improve glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes.
To compare the effects on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of a 2-year intervention with a low-fat diet (LFD) or a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) based on four group-meetings to achieve compliance. To describe different aspects of taking part in the intervention following the LFD or LCD.
Carbohydrate restriction has been associated with anti-inflammatory effects, but, still, evidence is insufficient to support specific amounts of carbohydrate and fat intake in individuals with type 2 diabetes, ... . Our findings, however, indicate that the use of LCD aiming for 20 E% intake from carbohydrates may be an effective strategy to improve the subclinical inflammatory state in type 2 diabetes.
The short term benefit of higher protein diets appears to persist to a small degree long term. Benefits are greater with better compliance to the diet.
Analysis was by intention to treat with last observation carried forward. Twenty-two of the participants (85%) completed the study. Weight loss was greater (6.9 vs. 2.1 kg, P = 0.003) in the low-carbohydrate group, with no difference in changes in HbA1c, ketone or lipid levels. The diet was equally effective in those with and without diabetes.
Carbohydrate restriction was an effective method of achieving short-term weight loss compared with standard advice, but this was at the expense of an increase in relative saturated fat intake.
A Low-Fat regimen may be preferred when reduction of blood cholesterol is a primary goal, whereas the Low-Carbohydrate regimen may be more appropriate when improvement in insulin sensitivity is the target. Either strategy promotes loss of fat weight and improvements of similar magnitude in blood pressure, and triglycerides, both of which can be seen as additional benefits to chronic disease risk reduction in addition to weight loss itself.
This study shows a clear benefit of a Very-Low-Carbohydrate-Ketogenic diet over Low-Fat diet for short-term body weight and fat loss, especially in men. A preferential loss of fat in the trunk region with a Very-Low-Carbohydrate-Ketogenic diet is novel and potentially clinically significant but requires further validation. These data provide additional support for the concept of metabolic advantage with diets representing extremes in macronutrient distribution.
Community-dwelling hyperlipidemic persons were randomly assigned to either a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet or a low-fat, low-cholesterol, reduced-calorie diet for 24 weeks. Compared to the low-fat group, patients in the low-carbohydrate group lost more weight, had a greater decrease in triglyceride levels, and had higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels.
Despite this study being the longest randomized, controlled trial of a very low carbohydrate diet reported, our results are still limited by the 6-month time frame. Whether the very low carbohydrate diet will produce sustained weight loss and continued improvement in cardiovascular risk factors over longer periods of time remains to be determined; the gradual increase in carbohydrate consumption in the final 3 months of the study suggests that some degree of recidivism is likely in persons on this diet.
There was improvement in LDL cholesterol levels (P < .05) in the Low-Fat group but not in the Low-Carbohydrate group. There were no adverse effects on the lipid profiles of participants in either group. Conclusions The Low-Carbohydrate diet appears to be an effective method for short-term weight loss in overweight adolescents and does not harm the lipid profile.
Severely obese subjects with a high prevalence of diabetes or the metabolic syndrome lost more weight during six months on a carbohydrate-restricted diet than on a calorie- and fat-restricted diet, with a relative improvement in insulin sensitivity and triglyceride levels, even after adjustment for the amount of weight lost. This finding should be interpreted with caution. Future studies evaluating long-term cardiovascular outcomes are needed before a carbohydrate-restricted diet can be endorsed.
In the setting of a healthful diet, partial substitution of carbohydrate with either protein or monounsaturated fat can further lower blood pressure, improve lipid levels, and reduce estimated cardiovascular risk.
A low-carbohydrate plant-based diet has lipid-lowering advantages over a high-carbohydrate, low-fat weight-loss diet in improving heart disease risk factors not seen with conventional low-fat diets with animal products.
This review will focus on the metabolic hormones insulin, leptin, and amylin and their role in cognitive decline, as well as the therapeutic potential of these hormones in treating cognitive disease. Future investigations targeting the long-term effects of insulin and leptin treatment may reveal evidence to reduce risk of cognitive decline and Alzheimer's Disease.
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