Open Future HealthMore Recent Science on Nutrition

Information collected for your use, by John Veitch

Because of the Internet, discussions that were only held in the closed rooms of elite universities are now available to the public. There is a lot of contention in the field of nutrition and online the competing sides will not be silenced.

I've been studying in this area for three years now. I'm really shocked at how poorly the usual services, newspapers, magazines and television cover the new dietary science. On radio a little bit. I'm especially disappointed by the poor quality of BBC Television documentaries on the topic. They run food/health/exercise programmes all the time, but the intention seems to be to throw confusion and misinformation everywhere.

In type 2 diabetes, randomisation to advice to follow a low-carbohydrate diet transiently improves glycaemic control compared with advice to follow a low-fat diet producing a similar weight loss

In conclusion, our findings support the use of an LCD with 20 E% from carbohydrates as an alternative to a traditional low-fat diet, if the aim primarily is to improve glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes.

Randomization to a low-carbohydrate diet advice improves health related quality of life compared with a low-fat diet at similar weight-loss in Type 2 diabetes mellitus

To compare the effects on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of a 2-year intervention with a low-fat diet (LFD) or a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) based on four group-meetings to achieve compliance. To describe different aspects of taking part in the intervention following the LFD or LCD.

Advice to follow a low-carbohydrate diet has a favourable impact on low-grade inflammation in type 2 diabetes compared with advice to follow a low-fat diet

Carbohydrate restriction has been associated with anti-inflammatory effects, but, still, evidence is insufficient to support specific amounts of carbohydrate and fat intake in individuals with type 2 diabetes, ... . Our findings, however, indicate that the use of LCD aiming for 20 E% intake from carbohydrates may be an effective strategy to improve the subclinical inflammatory state in type 2 diabetes.

Long term weight maintenance after advice to consume low carbohydrate, higher protein diets – A systematic review and meta analysis

The short term benefit of higher protein diets appears to persist to a small degree long term. Benefits are greater with better compliance to the diet.

A low-carbohydrate diet is more effective in reducing body weight than healthy eating in both diabetic and non-diabetic subjects

Analysis was by intention to treat with last observation carried forward. Twenty-two of the participants (85%) completed the study. Weight loss was greater (6.9 vs. 2.1 kg, P = 0.003) in the low-carbohydrate group, with no difference in changes in HbA1c, ketone or lipid levels. The diet was equally effective in those with and without diabetes.

Short-term effects of severe dietary carbohydrate-restriction advice in Type 2 diabetes—a randomized controlled trial

Carbohydrate restriction was an effective method of achieving short-term weight loss compared with standard advice, but this was at the expense of an increase in relative saturated fat intake.

Comparison of a Low-Fat Diet to a Low-Carbohydrate Diet on Weight Loss, Body Composition, and Risk Factors for Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease in Free-Living, Overweight Men and Women

A Low-Fat regimen may be preferred when reduction of blood cholesterol is a primary goal, whereas the Low-Carbohydrate regimen may be more appropriate when improvement in insulin sensitivity is the target. Either strategy promotes loss of fat weight and improvements of similar magnitude in blood pressure, and triglycerides, both of which can be seen as additional benefits to chronic disease risk reduction in addition to weight loss itself.

Comparison of energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women

This study shows a clear benefit of a Very-Low-Carbohydrate-Ketogenic diet over Low-Fat diet for short-term body weight and fat loss, especially in men. A preferential loss of fat in the trunk region with a Very-Low-Carbohydrate-Ketogenic diet is novel and potentially clinically significant but requires further validation. These data provide additional support for the concept of metabolic advantage with diets representing extremes in macronutrient distribution.

A Low-Carbohydrate, Ketogenic Diet versus a Low-Fat Diet To Treat Obesity and Hyperlipidemia: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

Community-dwelling hyperlipidemic persons were randomly assigned to either a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet or a low-fat, low-cholesterol, reduced-calorie diet for 24 weeks. Compared to the low-fat group, patients in the low-carbohydrate group lost more weight, had a greater decrease in triglyceride levels, and had higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels.

A Randomized Trial Comparing a Very Low Carbohydrate Diet and a Calorie-Restricted Low Fat Diet on Body Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Healthy Women

Despite this study being the longest randomized, controlled trial of a very low carbohydrate diet reported, our results are still limited by the 6-month time frame. Whether the very low carbohydrate diet will produce sustained weight loss and continued improvement in cardiovascular risk factors over longer periods of time remains to be determined; the gradual increase in carbohydrate consumption in the final 3 months of the study suggests that some degree of recidivism is likely in persons on this diet.

Effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factor in overweight adolescents

There was improvement in LDL cholesterol levels (P < .05) in the Low-Fat group but not in the Low-Carbohydrate group. There were no adverse effects on the lipid profiles of participants in either group. Conclusions The Low-Carbohydrate diet appears to be an effective method for short-term weight loss in overweight adolescents and does not harm the lipid profile.

A Low-Carbohydrate as Compared with a Low-Fat Diet in Severe Obesity

Severely obese subjects with a high prevalence of diabetes or the metabolic syndrome lost more weight during six months on a carbohydrate-restricted diet than on a calorie- and fat-restricted diet, with a relative improvement in insulin sensitivity and triglyceride levels, even after adjustment for the amount of weight lost. This finding should be interpreted with caution. Future studies evaluating long-term cardiovascular outcomes are needed before a carbohydrate-restricted diet can be endorsed.

Effects of protein, monounsaturated fat, and carbohydrate intake on blood pressure and serum lipids: results of the OmniHeart randomized trial.

In the setting of a healthful diet, partial substitution of carbohydrate with either protein or monounsaturated fat can further lower blood pressure, improve lipid levels, and reduce estimated cardiovascular risk.

The effect of a plant-based low-carbohydrate ("Eco-Atkins") diet on body weight and blood lipid concentrations in hyperlipidemic subjects.

A low-carbohydrate plant-based diet has lipid-lowering advantages over a high-carbohydrate, low-fat weight-loss diet in improving heart disease risk factors not seen with conventional low-fat diets with animal products.

The therapeutic potential of metabolic hormones in the treatment of age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer's Disease

This review will focus on the metabolic hormones insulin, leptin, and amylin and their role in cognitive decline, as well as the therapeutic potential of these hormones in treating cognitive disease. Future investigations targeting the long-term effects of insulin and leptin treatment may reveal evidence to reduce risk of cognitive decline and Alzheimer's Disease.

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