Norman Jolliffe and the Anti-Coronary Club
The date is 1957. President Eisenhower is having heart attacks. It's been demonstrated that eating vegetable oil rather than saturated fat reduces cholesterol. Norman Jolliffe enrolled 1100 men in the Anti-Coronary Club, and established a matching control group. From 1957 to 1962, the experiment seemed to be going well, and success was reported. By 1967 the results were negative and the experiment was closed.
Note: that as with President Eisenhower, there is no control over smoking for either group.
Reduce the amount of red meat. (Not more than three times a week.)
Eat more fish and poultry.
Reduce the consumption of eggs and dairy foods.
Drink two tablespoons of polyunsaturated vegetable oil a day.
This diet has about 30% more polyunsaturated fat than was usual at the time.
The Five Year Evaluation (1962)
Anti-Coronary Club members had lower total cholesterol.
Anti-Coronary Club members had lower blood pressure.
Anti-Coronary Club members had lost weight.
This was called a success; even though Norman Jolliffe, himself, already died of a heart attack in 1961.
The Ten Year Evaluation (1967)
Twenty-six members of the Anti-Coronary Club died by 1967.
Six members of the control group had died.
Control of Heart Attacks?
The Anti-Coronary Club was intended to prevent heart attacks.
Eight Anti-Coronary Club members died of heart attacks.
Zero members of the control group died of heart attacks. The Anti-Coronary Club was clearly not a success.